Exchange traded options and futures
Equity and index listed options are some of the most actively traded financial products, with millions of contracts tied to billions of shares traded each day. Their history as standardized, exchange-traded securities subject to regulatory oversight, however, is surprisingly short.
Chicago Board Options Exchange, the oldest U. The concept of trading an option, though, dates back to at least B. Options and futures are close cousins, but options as their name implies come with flexibility.
A future is a contract that carries the obligation to buy or sell an asset — say, a physical commodity like a bushel of corn or a financial instrument like an amount of a foreign currency — at a fixed price on a designated date in the future. Once you enter into a contract, you have to either hold up your end of the bargain i. An option, on the other hand, conveys the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at an established price by a designated date.
The buyer of an option can either exercise that contract on or prior to its expiration date in the case of American-style contracts, trade out of the contract, or simply let it expire. The origin of both products is closely tied to a host of commodities, ranging from olives to tulips, onions to grains.
Some believe that options contracts date before B. Inthe Chicago Board of Trade opened its doors. Bythe Board of Trade standardized its contracts, transforming the forward contracts marketplace into a standardized futures contract marketplace with exchange traded options and futures in expiration dates, contract quality and pricing, leaving a product very similar to the futures that trade today.
In the century that followed, futures grew more uniform and in the U. The Grain Futures Act of created a predecessor to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the first mandatory exchange traded options and futures system to settle trades was established in Options, on the other hand, remained unstandardized and largely unregulated in the U. Options had strong critics due to some of notable cases where the inability to require counterparties to fulfill their obligations led to big losses on what should have been a profitable exchange traded options and futures, and in some parts exchange traded options and futures Europe they were actually outlawed.
Without a standardized market, each option contract and each term of the contract — strike price, expiration date and cost — had to be individually negotiated. However in the early s, options-focused boiler rooms, fraudulent brokerage houses that peddled speculative or fake securities, popped up across the country, according to Chance, leaving a number of jilted investors in their wake and leaving the options industry unpopular with investors.
The stock market crash of led to a wide-ranging overhaul of financial regulation. The Securities Act of created a broad set of regulations governing securities trading while the Securities Exchange Act of created regulations governing the operation of securities exchanges and created the U.
Securities and Exchange Commission to enforce the new rules. The Chicago Board of Trade applied for registration as a national securities exchange shortly after, and received a license as such. But that license went unused for more than three decades as the market continued to trade non-standardized privately negotiated options contracts.
The Put and Call Brokers and Dealers Association was formed around this same time to better organize the over-the-counter markets. The resulting spun exchange traded options and futures entity, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, established open-outcry trading pits similar to those at its affiliated futures exchange and centralized options clearance and settlement.
Innot only did the CBOE open its doors, but two economists, Fischer Black and Myron Scholes, published an article putting forth a model for calculating the theoretical estimate of an options price over time. At the same time, their colleague Robert Merton published an additional study and mathematical amplification of the Black-Scholes model. The Black-Scholes model so changed the landscape for the pricing of options that Myron Scholes and Robert Merton were awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics for their work exchange traded options and futures later, in The market flourished and was subject to regulatory oversight on par with U.
Inoptions trading at the CBOE was restricted to call options, which grant the right to buy shares, in just 16 stocks. More recently, the option products have expanded to include mini options tied to 10 shares of stock instead of the standard shares, and weekly options, which expire every Friday, instead of exchange traded options and futures a month.
Inthe listed options market hit a milestone when more thancontracts were exchange traded options and futures in a single day. Options popularity continued to increase with more than 3. From Ancient Greece exchange traded options and futures Wall Street: Ancient History Options and futures are close cousins, but options as their name implies come with flexibility. Options, The Late Bloomers Options, on the other hand, remained unstandardized and largely unregulated in the U.
The Age Of Regulation The stock market crash of led to a wide-ranging overhaul of financial regulation. The Modern Landscape Inoptions trading at the CBOE was restricted to call options, which grant the exchange traded options and futures to buy shares, in just 16 stocks.